First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results: The Shadow of the Supermassive Black Hole

Geoffrey Bower
(ASIAA, Hilo) for The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration
Thursday, January 30, 2020
3:30 pm
RH 101
When surrounded by a transparent emission region, black holes are expected to reveal a dark shadow caused by gravitational light bending and photon capture at the event horizon.  To image and study this phenomenon, we have assembled the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), a global very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) array observing at a wavelength of 1.3 mm. This allows us to reconstruct event-horizon-scale images of the supermassive black hole candidate in the center of the giant elliptical galaxy M87. We have resolved the central compact radio source as an asymmetric bright emission ring with a diameter of 42 +/- 3 microarcseconds, which is circular and encompasses a central depression in brightness with a flux ratio >~ 10:1.  The emission ring is recovered using different calibration and imaging schemes, with its diameter and width remaining stable over four different observations carried out in different days. Overall, the observed image is consistent with expectations for the shadow of a Kerr black hole as predicted by general relativity.  We compare our images to an extensive library of ray-traced general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of black holes and derive a central mass of M=(6.5 +/- 0.7) x 10^9 M_Sun.  Our radio-wave observations thus provide powerful evidence for the presence of supermassive black holes in centers of galaxies and as the central engines of active galactic nuclei. They also present a new tool to explore gravity in its most extreme limit and on a mass scale that was so far not accessible.  I will also discuss future prospects for EHT imaging, including the Galactic Center black hole, Sagittarius A*.
Aaron Barth